Conservation of environment and natural resources for the present and future generations in a manner consistent with the aspirations of the country for growth and development.To Plan, promote, coordinate and oversee the implementation of environmental and forestry programmes in order to protect the environment and maintain a balance between conservation and development activities is the mission of Ministry of Environment and Forests & Climate Change (EF & CC)..
As everyone is aware that Transport is a key driver of economic growth and social development of our Country.The sector is however a major energy consumer.It accounts for more than half of India’s total Petroleum consumption and more than 25% of the overall energy needs (second only to industry), according to statistics available in 2013.It is also a significant contributor to the emissions generated by the country, accounting for about 13% of the emissions from the sector i.e. approximately 141 million tons of CO2 eq. in the year 2007.
According to Ministry of Environment & Forests and Climate Change (EF &CC), Govt. of India, the Green House Gas(GHG) Emissions from Transport sector in 2007 (million tonnes of CO2 ), for Road Transport Sector: the share of Passenger Traffic was 84.2% ; share of Freight Traffic was57.6% ; GHG emissions in tCO2eq. 123.24 (millions) : and share of GHG Emissions: 87.47% ; whereas Railways Sector ‘s figures are : share of Passenger Traffic was 14.1% ; share of Freight traffic was 42.4%; GHG emissions in tCO2eq. 6.11 millions and share of GHG Emissions was 4.33%.In regard to Aviation Sector (0.7 %) passenger traffic and share of freight traffic was 0.02% ; GHG emissions intCO2eq. 10.12 millions and share of GHG emissions was 7.18%.and in case ofNavigation Sector, the share of passenger and freight traffic is nil and GHG emission in tCO2eq. 1.42 millions and share of GHG emissionswas 1.12%.The total all Transport sectors,GHG emissions in tCO2eq. is 140.89 millions and share of GHG Emissions is100%.
The strategy for reduction of energy usage as well as GHG emissions in the transport sector, for the period 2020-30 requires detailed assessment of Transport demand v/s possible growth modal share and the alternative fuel/energy efficiency options.Various mitigation efforts enumerated including projections for the year 2020 and 2030 are based on the available data from different sources along with the suitable assumptions, wherever required.
Green House Gas Mitigation Strategies of Indian Railways : Given the relative advantage of the efficiency of Rail based Transport, increasing the share of Rail mode for both passenger movement (regional, sub-urban and urban) and freight movement is vital not only for increasing overall efficiencies of transport sector, but also to reduce GHG emissions. Some of the measures planned by IR are:–(a) increasing the frequency, speeds and throughput of Passenger Traffic by Railmode. Capacity augmentation of routes, increasing average speed of passenger trains, augmenting the capacity of existing trains and increasing the frequency of trains wherever needed, is envisaged. (b) increasing Rail based intra urban, regional and sub-urban transport—Introducing Electrical Multiple Units (MEMUs)/ Diesel Multiple Units(DEMUs) on identified routes is proposed to facilitate better alternate options for the commuters, as compared to road transport. (c) Introducing High Speed Rail (HSR) Service—The number of passengers travelling by air has been increasing due to the easy availability of low cost airlines and rapidly growing disposable incomes in the country.(d)Increase in share off Freight Traffic by Rail Mode—while the freight movement by Railways has been increasing over the years in absolute terms, from nearly 44 billion tonne kms (BTKM) in 1950-51 to 601 BTKM in 2009-10, the share of rail mode in freight movement has decreased from more than 80% in 1950-51 to about 36% in 2013-14 (Planning Commission-2007).IR is aimed to bring up the share of Railways in the freight traffic by 2030.
Measures like, introduction of more Dedicated Freight Corridors, increase in Freight Train speed/Throughput, rationalisation of freight charges to attract loading in the empty directions, development of commodity specific wagons, increase in efficiency of loading through better “Tare to Weight Ration “, better solutions on logistics to Rail customers, etc.These efforts require sizable resource mobilisation also.
—Railway’s important component of Infrastructure—The Golden Quadrilateral of Indian Railways and it is diagonals carry a major portion of freight and passenger traffic and have got over saturated (16% of route Km carries 52% of passenger & 58% of freight).This has led to a serious capacity constraints in meeting the country’s transport demand and steady decline of IR share in the total transportation in the country.Thus, to meet the ever increasing need of transportation and recognizing the need for a quantum leap in the rail transport capacity, Ministry of Railways has embarked upon a long term strategic plan to construct high capacity, high speed Dedicated Freight Corridors along the Golden Quadrilateral and its diagonals.
In the first phase, two corridors viz., 1520 km. Mumbai-Delhi (Western Dedicated Freight Corridor) and 1856 km Ludhiana-Dankuni (Eastern Dedicated Freight Corridor) have been identified for construction.The specific objectives of these corridors are: to reduce unit cost of transportation, create rail infrastructure to carry higher throughput per train, offer Indian Railway customers guaranteed faster transit at economical tariff, increase Indian Railway’s share in the freight market and improve overall transport efficiency of the rail network as well as enhance IR’s share in the total land transportation in the country towards the ultimate target of 45% as per the project report.These two corridors are expected to be commissioned in phases from 2017 to 2019.
Development of Terminals including Logistic Parks—Indian Railways envisages expansion of terminals with logistic parks to provide end to end solutions for freight movement.Increase in share of contrainer traffic has also been envisaged for the same.Railways has initiated action to procure Distributed Powered Electrical Multiple Unit Train Sets for trains.These Train Sets are energy efficient, providing higher capacity with superior riding experience and are expected to reduce journey time by 20% on existing routes.Train Sets with Sleeper services between New Delhi-Howrah and New Delhi-Mumbai can facilitate almost overnight trains.
Traffic Growth in Rail Mode—Considering the various measure to be implemented and expansion of Railway’s infrastructure & Rolling Stock, traffic projections of IR are set to grow at the rate of 6% p.a. for passenger and 8% p.a. for freight transport between 2013-14 and 2029-30 in alignment with the Low Carbon Strategies for Inclusive Growth report of the Planning Commission (2014).The intermodal share of Rail Transport is likely to stabilise around 39% for Freight movement, as compared to the present level of share of 36%.
Improvement in Fuel Efficiency in Diesel Traction : The Specific Fuel Consumption(SFC) for diesel traction is expected to improve by 5.37% by 2020 as compared to 2013-14 and by 4.23% in the decade between 2020 and 2030.The measures planned to improve SFC up to 2030 through technological intervention, are – provision of Auxiliary Power Units(APU) on all diesel locos; Common Rail Electronic Direct Injection (CReDI)/Electronic Fuel Injection (EFI) system; Guidance for Optimized Locomotive Driving(GOLD); Multi Genset locomotives; Miller Cycle Turbocharger& Smart Multiple Units.
Improvement in Specific Energy Consumption (SEC) by introduction of EMUs with regenerative features:Adoption of 3 phase IGBT Technology for Electrical Multiple Units(EMUs)in Mumbai Suburban area is expected to result in significant improvement in SEC.It is expected to reduce emission of 600 tonnes of CO2 per annum per train due to regenerative braking features of the new EMUs (leading to reduction of about 1,00,000 tonnes of CO2 annually).Similarly, EMUs with regenerative braking in Kolkata Metro will significantly reduce energy consumption.
Introduction of latest Energy Efficient Locomotive Technology: It is expected to reduce 500 tonnes of CO2annually due to regenerative braking features of the new 6000 HP locomotives.The High Power (9000 & 12000 HP) Electric Locos which is under procurement by Indian Railways, will have latest energy efficient technology resulting in improvement in Specific Energy Consumption as well as reduction in much higher quantity of Green House Gas(GHG)emissions.
Technological improvement in Electric Locos: (i) Three phase technology for electric locos—Regenerative braking feature which enables regeneration of 15% power to back-feed to grid during braking. (ii) Fitment of 1000 KVA hotel load converter to supply to the utilities in trains.This would help in increasing the train capacity and reduce noise pollution. (iii) Provision of Energy-cum-speed monitoring system (ESMON) on all electric locomotives to monitor the driver performance leading to energy conservation.
Efforts on improving Energy efficiency on account of trailing Rolling Stock : With improvement in design of wagons and higher axle load permitted, the ‘ Pay load to Tare ratio’ of wagons improved from 3.1 to 3.44, resulting in better NTKM/GTKM ratio.Pay load to tare ratio will be further increased to 4.0 for ARI Gondola wagons and 4.21 for BOXN25 Design B.Commodity specific wagons are also being developed.These measures will enablehigher throughput and result in reduced GHG emissions for the same freight traffic.Besides, improved design Stainless Steel Coaches also provide higher carrying capacity.With increasing share of such coaches, PKM to GTKM ratio will improve resulting in reduced GHG emissions for carrying the same passenger traffic.
Improving Energy Efficiency on Non-Traction side:For non-traction installations over Indian Railways, such as Production Units, Workshops, Stations and Office buildings, etc., various energy conservation measures are underway.Adoption of energy efficient fittings, use of LEDs in passenger coaches and at Railway Stations, adoption of automation of pumps are key initiatives.Apart from this, IR has adopted mandatory procurement of at least 3 star or higher rated products for achieving energy efficiency.Provisions of Energy Conservation Building Code (ECBC) are also adopted suitably.
Green Buildings: Indian Railways(IR) has already taken initial steps to construct its major buildings as Green Buildings.In the recent past, IR has built two Green Buildings at Pune and Secunderabad. In both the buildings, a number of energy and water saving features, efficient waste management practices, use of recyclable materials, resource re-use and other measures for containing air and water pollution has been adopted/taken.Based on the experience gained, IR is proposing to build major service buildings and GreenBuildings in the period to come.
Use of Renewable Energy Sources : In order to achieve the target of sourcing of at least 10% electricity from Renewable energy resources, IR has taken initiatives for tapping “ Wind energy and Solar energy.”In this direction, IR have set up a target of installing 1000 MW capacity of Solar Energy Plants by 2020.Similarly about 170 MW capacity of Wind Mill is currently envisaged by Indian Ralways.During the period 2020 to 2030, similar projects will be planned based on availability of resources.
Improvement in Energy Intensity in Railway System:Indian Railways is the most efficient mode of transport for both passenger as well Goods movement.Though, Railway is one of the significant consumers of energy in the country, with the amount of energy used for transporting per unit of Goods as well as Passengers being the lowest in the country.In the year 2004-05, the energy intensity for Passenger traffic was reported as 71 TJ/BPKM which was substantially lesser than the taxis (1338 TJ/BPKM) and bus (196 TJ/BPKM).For the movement of Freight, the energy intensity of Railways was 91 TJ/BTKM as compared to HCVs (i.e. 1125 TJ/BTKM).As a result of various energy efficiency improvement programme described in previous paras, the Railways’energy Intensity is expected to further decrease by the years 2020 and 2030 progressively.
Improvement in Emission Intensity & GHG mitigation programmes over IR: The specific efforts and initiatives on IR for mitigating environmental impacts due to Rail operations in order to reduce GHG emissions, has resulted in desired outcomes.The emission intensity of Indian Railways has reduced from the value of 12.38tCO2per million GTKM in the base year 2005 to 10.81 tCO2per million GTKM in the year 2014 ( a decrease of 12.7).This amounts to annual savings in GHG emissions to the tune of 3 million tCO2in the year 2013-14 over the base year.The emission intensity is targeted for further reduction by about 23% by the year 2020 and over 31% by the year 2030, as compared to the base year 2005.These targets will lead to annual saving of 9 million tCO2and 23 million tCO2respectively in the years 2019-20 and 2029-30 as compared to projected emissions using base year intensity.